Металовиробництво Дніпро-Донського регіону в епоху раннього металу: підсумки та перспективи дослідження

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ІА НАН України


Статтю присвячено результатам досліджень металоробної діяльності давнього на- селення Дніпро-Донського регіону – одного з ключових для теренів півдня Східної Європи за доби енеоліту-бронзи, а також перспективам подальшого дослідження цієї проблеми.
The result of the study is the concept of the Donetsk Mining and Metallurgical Center (DMMC) genesis developed by the author as a result of the evolutionary metal production development in the Eneolithic age – bronze on the territory of the East European steppe and forest-steppe. Repeatedly interrupted by environmental crises at different stages of the paleometallic age, the development of metal production led to the creation of a highly organized mining and metallurgical center specialized in large-scale production at the Donetsk Ridge in the Late Bronze Age. This production center was saturated with copper ore concentrate as specialized workshops of the Dnieper-Don production zone of the Be rezhnovsky-Mayevsky Srubnaya culture and the Don-Donetsk production zone of the Pokrovsky-Mosolovsky Srubnaya culture. Based on the monuments’ complex of the Kartamysh archaeological microdistrict, which was extensively investigated by the author on the eponymous ore occurrence of the Donetsk Ridge, the functioning of entire industrial microdistricts in the system of a one-time specialized, mainly in mining, production array was established in the Bronze Age. The high organization of metal production on the territory of the Dnieper-Don region in the Late Bronze Age is confirmed by specialized settlements oriented to largescale production, which have the corresponding professional orientation – mining, metallurgy and metalworking. Evidence of the metal production of the Dnieper-Don region of the Late Bronze Age is supplemented by materials from dozens of settlements operating as part of small-scale production. Household monuments, as a source of studying metal production in the early metal age, complement funerary complexes. In contrast to the late Bronze Age, on the main territory of the Dnieper-Don region, in the graves of the Srubnaya time, can be observed, although a very rare, equable occurrence of metal products. This suggests that an organized metal products distribution system existed in this region in the Late Bronze Age. At the same time, the needs for the production of metal products of both specialized settlements focused on large-scale production and individual craftsmen working in the small-scale production system were met by the DMMC, conveniently located in the geographical center of the Dnieper-Don region. Together with the monuments of the Bronze Age specialized in metal production, large agglomerations of settlements of this period are of great importance in the Dnieper-Don region. One of such agglomerations of settlements is the Kapitanovsky micro district in Srednee Podontsovye. In addition to expressive evidence of metal production, the uniqueness of the settlement of Kapitanovo-I is determined by its location in the system of exchange routes actively functioning in the Late Bronze Age. Findings of four bone psalms in this settlement suggests that the Kapitanovo agglomeration of settlements was located along the trade route. Along this route, it is likely could be implemented as the transportation of raw materials from DMMC and metal products (ingots, products) specialized in the manufacture of large-scale settlements. It can be assumed that the Kapitanovo agglomeration of settlements itself was a kind of trading post. In addition, there is a reason to believe that the market place that took place here were also saturated with products (metal products) of separately working (including Kapitanovo settlements) as part of the small-scale production of universal masters, which took into account the needs of consumers of finished products. Thus, the results obtained allow us to outline the prospects for further research on the problems of metal production in the Dnieper-Don region in the Bronze Age. Of particular note is the continuation of field studies of the Kapitanovo agglomeration of Bronze Age settlements. The prospect of these studies is seen not only in revealing the internal specialization (organization) of the monuments of this microdistrict, which, it seems, were tied to trading operations with metal of Donetsk origin, but also in obtaining convincing evidence of the existence of a highly organized economic ties system in the Late Bronze Age that ensured the interaction of all its components (production, distribution, exchange and consumption) in the vast territory of the Dnieper-Don region.



Дніпро-Донський регіон, доба бронзи, Донецький гірничо-металургійний центр, металовиробництво, Dnieper-Don region, the Bronze Age, Donetsk Mining and Metallurgical Center, metal production


Бровендер Ю. М. Металовиробництво Дніпро-Донського регіону в епоху раннього металу: підсумки та перспективи дослідження. І Всеукраїнський археологічний з’їзд: матеріали роботи. Київ: ІА НАН України, 2019. С. 229-236.